Energy Efficiency Manual
Table of Contents


Key to the Measures inside front cover

How to Use the Energy Efficiency Manual front endsheet

A Personal Note: The Right Way to Do Energy Conservation P 7

Expression of Gratitude P 13

Section 1: BOILER PLANT P 17

1.1 Equipment Scheduling and Operating Practices 19

1.2 Boiler Plant Efficiency Measurement 43

1.3 Air-Fuel Ratio 59

1.4 Burner and Fan Systems 71

1.5 Draft Control 93

1.6 Firesides and Watersides 109

1.7 Combustion Gas Heat Transfer and Heat Recovery 119

1.8 Condensate, Feedwater, and Water Treatment 137

1.9 Fuel Oil Systems 173

1.10 Steam and Water Leakage 181

1.11 Conduction and Radiation Losses 211

1.12 System Design for Efficient Low-Load Heating 225

Section 2: CHILLER PLANT P. 237

2.1 Equipment Scheduling and Operating Practices 239

2.2 Optimum Operating Temperatures 263

2.3 Condenser and Evaporator Heat Transfer Efficiency 275

2.4 Heat Rejection Equipment 289

2.5 Pump Energy Consumption 317

2.6 Compressors 331

2.7 Refrigerant Condition 337

2.8 System Design for Efficient Low-Load Cooling 355

2.9 Exploiting Low Ambient Temperature for Water Chilling 367

2.10 Heat Recovery from Chillers 385

2.11 Cooling Thermal Storage 405

Section 3: SERVICE WATER SYSTEMS 437

3.1 Reducing Service Water Consumption 439

3.2 Water Heating Systems 457

3.3 Service Water Pumping 479

Section 4: AIR HANDLING SYSTEMS P 497

4.1 Minimizing Duration of Operation 505

4.2 Outside Air Intake and Building Pressurization 517

4.3 Single-Zone Systems 579

4.4 Single-Duct Reheat Systems 605

4.5 Dual-Duct Reheat Systems 637

4.6 Multizone Systems 651

4.7 Variable-Air-Volume Single-Duct Systems 661

4.8 Variable-Air-Volume Dual-Duct Systems 681

4.9 Induction Systems 691

Section 5: ROOM CONDITIONING UNITS

5.1 Minimizing Equipment Operation 703

5.2 Radiators and Convectors 719

5.3 Fan-Coil Units 741

5.4 Self-Contained Air Conditioners and Through-Wall Heat Pumps 753

5.5 Remotely Cooled Air Conditioning Units and Heat Pumps 763

5.6 Heat Pump Loop Systems (Additional Measures) 779

5.7 Direct-Fired Heating Units 797

Section 6: BUILDING AIR LEAKAGE P 805

6.1 Personnel Doors 807

6.2 Garage, Loading, and Equipment Doors 825

6.3 Window Air Leakage 859

6.4 Other Envelope Leakage 863

Section 7: BUILDING INSULATION P 873

7.1 Roofs and Attics 875

7.2 Walls and Soffits 889

7.3 Glazing Insulation 907

Section 8: CONTROL AND USE OF SUNLIGHT P 913

8.1 Reducing Cooling Load: Windows & Skylights 917

8.2 Reducing Cooling Load: Opaque Surfaces & Overall 953

8.3 Daylighting 965

8.4 Passive Solar Heating 1007

Section 9: ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

9.1 Lamps and Fixtures, Incandescent 1021

9.2 Lamps and Fixtures, Fluorescent 1045

9.3 Lamps and Fixtures, H.I.D. and L.P.S. 1071

9.4 Lighting Controls, Manual 1085

9.5 Lighting Controls, Automatic 1097

9.6 Lighting Layout 1115

9.7 Fixture Maintenance and Marking 1151


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Section 10: INDEPENDENT ENERGY-USING COMPONENTS P 1159

10.1 A.C. Induction Motors 1161

10.2 Centrifugal Pumps 1177

10.3 Fans 1187

10.4 Standby Equipment 1193

Section 11: REFERENCE NOTES P 1197

Group 1. ENERGY MANAGEMENT TOOLS 1199

10. Clock Controls and Programmable Thermostats 1199

11. Personnel Sensors 1205

12. Placards 1213

13. Energy Management Control Systems 1219

14. Control Signal Polling 1227

15. Infrared Thermal Scanning 1229

16. Measurement of Liquid, Gas, and Heat Flow 1233

17. Energy Analysis Computer Programs 1239

Group 2. ENERGY SOURCES P 1247

20. Fossil Fuels 1247

21. Electricity Pricing 1251

22. Low-Temperature Heat Sources & Sinks for Heat Pumps and Cooling Equipment 1259

23. Non-Fossil Energy Sources 1267

24. Characteristics of Sunlight 1283

Group 3. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT P 1289

30. Boiler Types and Ratings 1289

31. How Cooling Efficiency is Expressed 1297

32. Compression Cooling 1299

33. Absorption Cooling 1323

34. Refrigerants 1331

35. Centrifugal Pumps 1339

36. Variable-Speed Motors and Drives 1347

37. Control Characteristics 1379

Group 4. BUILDING ENVELOPE P 1385

40. Building Air Leakage 1385

41. How Insulation Works 1389

42. Vapor Barriers 1393

43. Insulation Selection 1397

44. Insulation Integrity 1403

45. Insulation Economics 1405

46. Daylighting Design 1407

47. Passive Solar Heating Design 1417

Group 5. LIGHTING P 1425

50. Measuring Light Intensity 1425

51. Factors in Lighting Quality 1427

52. Comparative Light Source Characteristics 1439

53. Lighting Efficiency Standards 1447

54. Incandescent Lighting 1449

55. Fluorescent Lighting 1461

56. H.I.D. and L.P.S. Lighting 1473

57. Light Distribution Patterns of Fixtures 1483

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Copyright © 2003 Energy Institute Press. All rights reserved. Contributors of Illustrations 1485

Disclaimer & Warning 1488

INDEX 1489


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